Discover the historical events that led to the Bridge's construction, how Tower Bridge was built, and how it lifts the road for river traffic.
Choosing the design for a new river crossing
A huge challenge faced the City of London Corporation: how to build a bridge downstream from London Bridge without disrupting river traffic activities. To generate ideas, the Special Bridge or Subway Committee was formed in 1876, and a public competition was launched to find a design for the new crossing.
Over 50 designs were submitted to the Committee for consideration, some of which are on display at Tower Bridge.
Building Tower Bridge
It took eight years, five major contractors and the relentless labour of 432 construction workers each day to build Tower Bridge under the watchful eye of Sir John Wolfe Barry.
Two massive piers were built on foundations sunk into the riverbed to support the construction, and over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the Towers and Walkways.
This framework was clad in Cornish Granite and Portland Stone to protect the underlying steelwork and to give the Bridge a more pleasing appearance.
How Tower Bridge works
When it was built, Tower Bridge was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge ever completed ('bascule' comes from the French word for 'seesaw').
These bascules were operated by hydraulics, using steam to power the enormous pumping engines. The energy created was stored in six massive accumulators, meaning that as soon as power was required to lift the Bridge, it was always readily available. The accumulators fed the driving engines, which drove the bascules up and down. Despite the complexity of the system, the bascules only took 60 seconds to raise to their maximum angle of 86 degrees.
Today, the bascules are still operated by hydraulic power, but since 1976 they have been driven by oil and electricity rather than steam. The original pumping engines, accumulators and boilers are now on display within the Bridge’s Engine Rooms.
1886 - The construction of Tower Bridge began on 22 April.
1894 - Tower Bridge was opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales with great celebrations, on 30 June.
1910 - The high-level Walkways, which were designed so that the public could still cross the Bridge when it was raised, were closed due to lack of use.
1912 - During a stunt, Frank McClean flew between the bascules and the high-level Walkways in his Short seaplane. He then proceeded to fly under at least three other bridges on his way to Westminster.
1949 - Tower Bride got a new roof following the Second World War, after suffering minor damages during the Blitz (7 September 1940 to 11 May 1941). Restoration works started in 1949 and lasted until 1952, with the original Welsh slate roof replaced by Westmorland Green slate, sourced from the Lake District.
1952 - The number 78 London bus driven by Albert Gunter on its way across the Bridge, had to leap from one bascule to the other when the Bridge began to rise.
1976 - Tower Bridge switches to electrified hydraulics, rather than the steam-driven system it was originally powered by.
1977 - Tower Bridge was painted red, white and blue to celebrate the Queen's Silver Jubilee. The original colour of the Bridge was a chocolate brown colour.
1982 - Tower Bridge opened to the public as an attraction for the first time since 1910, with a permanent exhibition inside.
2012 - Playing a focal point in the London Olympics, this year saw the Olympic rings suspended from the Walkways, and James Bond and ‘the Queen’ fly through in a helicopter during the Opening Ceremony.
2019 - Tower Bridge turns 125 on 30 June with many activities throughout the month.
Explore more history
Dive deeper into the articles below, which explore some of the historical feats in more detail.
Historic Bridge Lifts
Have you ever wondered which vessels Tower Bridge has opened for? We've compiled 10 of the most interesting vessels to have sailed through Tower Bridge.
Our royal connections
Tower Bridge has many connections to the royal family, from Queen Victoria to Queen Elizabeth II and before. These connections can be traced back to long before 1894, when London's defining landmark was officially opened to the public.
The people of Tower Bridge
The people make a place.
Uncover the fascinating stories of the people who built Tower Bridge and have worked here since its completion.
Tower Bridge vs. London Bridge
Londoners will happily tell you which is which, but how do you tell the difference?
Tower Bridge on Screen
From big blockbusters to video games, Tower Bridge has appeared on screen too many times to count.
The bus jump
Read the true tale of the day a London bus jumped over the rising bascules of Tower Bridge.
Listen to the history of Tower Bridge, as told by David Laird, Education Officer. From the inception of its design and the Bridge's construction through to the amazing feats that have happened since, David leads you on a journey of discovery along the key historical dates in greater detail.
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